Essays & Other Writings

Physicality of conventions

The artwork is a black pillow made of cotton, filled with wool. On the pillow a text is written. Not with ink or via silkscreening, but with a 3D printer. The text reads a descriptively written algorithm, which was used by Artez to sort their students into their specialization classes. The letters are a stark white against its dark background and stand out with their relief.... When you turn the pillow, the letters catch a different light and shadows fall between the letters in a dance of light. Touching the letters is another experience all-together. They are hard, firm and as smooth as plastic can be, but they still move under need your fingers because of the soft surface of the soft surface under need. When you press hard enough on the letters, the pillow will buckle under the pressure and the separate words will be mashed together into a hard, white plane. During the performance, I read the criteria in a monotonous voice, my face hidden behind a black IPad. My voice oddly mechanic, but human at the same time. When nearing the end, the voice becomes more human; the voice sounds out of breath; every few seconds a silent breath sounds through the room; the rhythm spikes. Meanwhile, the audience gets to experience the pillow. They’re able to touch the physical form of the text while it’s spoken out loud.
The work creates a physical form for an existing convention. Cathy O'Neil explains in her book Weapons of Math Destruction, the harmful features of the algorithms that make these conventions. She says that a WMD – Weapon of Math Destruction – is defined by three criteria. Opacity, scale and damage. If the algorithm scores high in all three, then it’s a WMD. The damage the algorithm causes differs with every case, but it’s often seen that it discriminates, and hurts those whom already suffer the consequences of human discrimination. O’Neil writes: “Most troubling, they reinforce discrimination: If a poor student can’t get a loan because a lending model deems him too risky (by virtue of his zip code), he’s then cut off from the kind of education that could pull him out of poverty, and a vicious spiral ensues. Models are propping up the lucky and punishing the downtrodden, creating a “toxic cocktail for democracy.””1 Like Cathy O’Neill, designers should focus on distilling social conventions and make them visible for the public.
One of the possibilities for designers to visualize hidden systems is through unconventional design.2 In this form of design, the main goal is not to display the information as well as possible but to create a tension, a certain friction between the viewer and the design. These frictions are necessary to open up connections between the viewer, their inner selves and larger systems. The artwork Staattaal by Yuri Veerman is a kwartet card game which displays neologisms of Dutch political parties.3 Through the game, he enlightens the players of conventions in language of Dutch political parties and he creates a physical platform for these neologisms. By using this medium for his dataset he reaches the viewer without much tension, but in this case, I believe that the lack of tension is in favour of the project. Through distilling these specific elements from the speech systems of the politicians, he creates another convention himself and displays it. Even though Physical Opacity does not have a playful tone like Staattaal, it has been created through the same method. By recognizing conventions and creating a public display for them.
To conclude I believe that designers should aim to recognize everyday social conventions in society and create a public platform for them through design. This might be achieved through the publication of books explaining the systems behind the conventions, like Cathy O’Neil did in her book Weapons of Math Destruction.4 Or through unconventional design, which strives to create connections between the viewer and these conventions.5 However, other mediums also work well for opening up these conventions in society. For example, the work of Yuri Veerman named Staattaal.6 Where he displays a political convention and brings it into the public through a fun card game. These examples enforce my believe that designers should play a large role in bringing more opacity to conventions in society.

1 4 O’Neil, C. (2018). Weapons of math destruction: how big data increases inequality and threatens democracy. London: Penguin Books.
2 5 Ozenc, K. (2016, April 4). The 3 most unconventional designers of 21st century - starting with Design shaman. Retrieved November 27, 2019, from https://medium.com/ritual-design/a-new-breed-of-21st-century-designers-b73712963b4
3 6 Veerman, Y. (2015). Staattaal. Retrieved November 13, 2019, from: https://yuriveerman.nl/Staattaal


Being Supercanny

“All beings so far have created something beyond themselves. Do you want to be the ebb of that great tide, and revert back to the beast rather than surpass mankind? What is the ape to a man? A laughing-stock, a thing of shame. And just so shall a man be... to the Superman: a laughing-stock, a thing of shame.” said Nietzsche famously in his book ‘Thus Spake Zarathustra’ published in 1885.1 I believe we’re on the edge of man, unable to move to Superman. Technological innovations have given us the opportunity to surpass mankind, but structures in our societies, such as class differences and money – or lack thereof- keep us from falling over the edge to become our destined Superman. However, by means of the internet, man has created a new realm. This realm can be designed to allow man to surpass mankind because we live in an image-based world that manifests online. We watch television, scroll through our Instagram feed and send pictures of our day to our ‘friends’ on Snapchat. This is man’s opportunity to create something more than himself. But are we ready to become a Superman living in a virtual world?
Hannah Arendt was an American-German philosopher in the 20th century. She said: “It seems that a man who is nothing but a man has lost the very qualities which make it possible for other people to treat him as a fellow- man.”2 Thus a man is not defined by being a man, but by what he has and everything which he associates himself with. Flaws in these ‘human’ qualities can be concealed through technology. Voices can be changed, looks can be modified and even personality disorders can be medicated. What happens when we encompass all human qualities? That’s the moment that we become what Nietzsche called a Superman. But only for those that have access. For all the other man, the list of qualities they need to possess to be considered human will grow longer. They will turn into the laughing-stock of our modern society, because we’ll not be able to view them as human. Which is also the reason why mankind will be unable to move to Superman, because we’ll not be able to move to this stage together.
This aesthetic manifests on social networks, like Instagram and snapchat. It’s powered by filters, photoshop and apps like Facetune. It found its origin in photoshopped models in advertisements and on the cover on magazines. Instagram feed can be seen as a virtual representation of mankind. Through the use of filters and editing tools, we’re creating a space where a person loses their human flaws and enters into the realm of something that surpasses the capabilities of mankind. The exponential growth of social media in our daily lives over the past decade enabled this aesthetic to take root.
The consequence of this new aesthetic can be found in our own physical reaction to the development of the online Superman. Much like the emotional experience when we watch a humanoid enact human behaviour on Youtube, can be found when we encounter an Instagram page created with filters and photoshop. It manifests in a creepy, uncomfortable and wrongly familiar feeling. It’s the experience of chills down your back and sweaty palms, because something seems not quite right. This emotional experience is called the uncanny valley. Stephanie Lay wrote that: “The uncanny valley might occur at the boundary where something moves from one category to another,”3 In this case we’re experiencing the movement of mankind from its place in the physical world to the virtual world.
According to Nietzsche, we will – like every other species – move from man to something bigger than us; Superman. It seems inevitable with our natural desire for excessive use of social media, but we’ll not be able to reach this stage together. So, for now we’re stuck in Supercanny. This is the question we should ask ourselves though; do we want to lose our human flaws and become Superman in a world based on technological innovation and modification? Or do we want to be a laughing-stock?

1 Nietzsche, F. W., & Common, T. (1908). Thus spake Zarathustra. Edinburgh: T. Common.
2 Linfield, S. (2012). The cruel radiance: Photography and political violence. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
3 Lay, S. (2015, November 13). Uncanny valley: Why we find human-like robots and dolls so creepy | Stephanie Lay. Retrieved May 15, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/nov/13/robotshuman-uncanny-valley


To be or not to be spectacle

Metahaven aimed to critique internet’s agitation propaganda in the movie The Sprawl. Agitation propaganda has its origin in the Soviet Union. It stands for propaganda which is brought to the public en masse and is meant to arouse the audience to action.1 The Sprawl is a reaction on ...the misinformation spread through agitation propaganda following the shot-down MH17 flight.2 I believe that The Sprawl ‘Fuck the EU’ challenges the production of the spectacle for propaganda purposes. The movie is divided into small clips, based on the attention span of the spectator of the internet. Every clip is based on some footage, rumour or news broadcast concerning MH17. The clip ‘Fuck the EU’ shows a woman with a green face-painted face stands in front of a background, which is the same colour as the paint. Yellow and blue dice covered with numerous symbols roll down the screen in front of the woman. A phone conversation between Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland and the US Ambassador to Ukraine, Geoffrey Pyatt is played in the background, the clip ends with a woman shouting “fuck the EU” which is echoed until it fades out. 3 4
In the clip, some sharp contrasting elements are used. Such as the clear division in foreground and background, the two different colours of the dice, the division created by the persons on the phone between ‘us’ and ‘them’ and the contrast of the male and female voices on the phone. The use of these contrasts emphasizes the theme of binary polarization in this artwork. Propaganda is known to display people, subjects or issues with a clear division in sides, that way it’s ‘easier’ to convince the spectator of a certain idea, perspective or side. As Stuart Hall writes in The Spectacle of the Other: “[…] [People who are in any way significantly different from the majority] seem to be represented through sharply opposed, polarized, binary extremes – good/bad, civilized/primitive, ugly/excessively attractive […].”5
Furthermore, if we take a step back and look at the context in which this artwork is placed, we are standing in a large, dark room in which multiple screen are placed. They’re randomly placed in the space. Their placement differs in height, in altitude and longitude, only the size of the screen binds all the displays together. The way the artwork is displayed, strongly reminds the spectator of the atmosphere of the cinema. The cinema is one of the first places where the presence of the spectacle was apparent. A spectacle, as defined by Guy Debord in The Society of the Spectacle, is: “[…] not a collection of images; rather, it is a social relationship between people that is mediated by images” and this relationship is certainly found in film.6 In this sense, I believe that the - preferred - message of the film is directed by the producer and thus received by the audience through images. So, film on its own could be a spectacle, but the atmosphere around the displaying of the film is also related to spectacle. “It is in this urban dark that the body’s freedom is generated; this invisible work of possible affects emerges from a veritable cinematographic cocoon; the movie spectator could easily appropriate the silkworm’s motto: Inclusum labor illustrat; it is because I am enclosed that I work and glow with all my desire.” writes Roland Barthes in his piece ‘Leaving the Movie Theatre’.7 This situation described by Barthes can also be found in the museum. People come in at a time of leisure, they wander around – most of the time not searching for anything in particular. They move from exhibition to exhibition, from artwork to artwork and when the spectators enter the exhibition space of The Sprawl, aspects of the movie theatres can be found here; a dark room, the screens are the only sources of light. As a herd of sheep or dupes, we all look at the same screen, but cocooned in our own space. I believe by recreating this scene, Metahaven tried to achieve the hypnotic state of mind which is created inside the movie theatre. Furthermore, they want the spectators to experience this state to be able to understand the situation they critique.
To conclude, I would like to add to my analysis my belief that Metahaven has been caught in the stream of the spectacle while they were making and promoting The Sprawl. Because even though Metahaven wants to critique the spectacle with this artwork, they might habe become a spectacle themselves by being on social media and having an online network. Parts of their work are filmed or photographed by the spectators and posted online. Next, these videos are featured in Metahaven’s feed and shared once more. And who is to say that the information that has spread about this piece of art is still the truth? Their artwork seems to have tumbled from a stand-alone which delivers critique on the spectacle of propaganda, to a blob in the vicious circle of the spectacle found in social media.

1Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Agitprop." Encyclopædia Britannica. July 20, 1998. Accessed December 13, 2018. https://www.britannica.com/topic/agitprop.
2"The Sprawl (Propaganda About Propaganda)." Exit and the Extensions of Man | Transmediale. Accessed December 13, 2018. https://transmediale.de/content/the-sprawl-propaganda-about-propaganda.
3Metahaven, and J. Lund. "The Sprawl by Metahaven." The Sprawl. Accessed December 10, 2018. http://sprawl.space/.
4Metahaven, and J. Lund. "The Sprawl by Metahaven." The Sprawl. Accessed December 10, 2018. http://sprawl.space/about-the-sprawl/.
5Hall, Stuart. "The Spectacle of the Other." In Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: SAGE / Open University, 1997.
6Debord, Guy. Society of the Spectacle. 1e ed. US: Black & Red, 1984.
7Watts, Philip, Dudley Andrew, and Yves Citton. Roland Barthes Cinema. Corby: Oxford University Press, 2016.


To be a witness
Is to stand close enough
To be struck by the remnants
Of the experienced

Every drop that strikes
Has a different colour
It leaves a different stain
On different cloth
Some may be washed out
Some are more resilient
Some never leave

The colour scheme of stains
Make the witness


I believe that sometimes, witnessing is more difficult than experiencing.
In classic Hollywood action movies, the most mournful death that can happen is of the main character’s loved ones. And that’s when they’re killed right in front of their eyes, when you see their melancholy and physical pain. Of course, this is acted by strong actors, but I think this phenomenon enforces my statement that witnessing is sometimes more painful than experiencing.
The empathy of the audience during such a movie also enforces my statement. The audience witnesses and is unable to change the narrative of the movie. They’re stuck in this universe created by a producer, unable to react on what they see. I believe that this might be a reason why film is so strong a medium. The helplessness that you feel when the movie makes a turn for the worse, and the empathy for the characters is unbelievably strong. This is the epitome of human empathy.


The dominance of signs over space

Complex programs and settings prevent space to be communicative in contemporary times.1 Space can communicate information, like signs do. However, the power of communication through space is more subtle than communication by signs. In the fast pace of contemporary society, people are solemnly concerned by getting from point A to point B as efficiently as possible. Signs are compatible with the fast pace, space -or at least it’s communicative value- is not compatible. Take for example the large billboards next to the highway, in the Netherlands they’re everywhere. I remember a game we used to play as a family when we went on holiday. Around dinner time our parents would say “the one who sees the McDonalds sign first, wins” and we would look frantically out of the windows to the passing signs. It’s amazing how far ahead you can spot these signs, because most of the time my brother would’ve seen the sign before it even reached my line of sight. Throughout this game, our focus wouldn’t set on the passing environment, or the special layout of the highway, but solemnly on the signs. This also is an example of space which loses the attention of the passer-by when it’s dominated by signs. Signs communicate much more strongly than the spatial layout [or architecture].

1Venturi, R., Izenour, S., & Brown, D. S. (2006). Learning from Las Vegas: The forgotten symbolism of architectural form, p.9 . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


African American

It may seem weird, but the thing that stood out the most when reading Seeing the Unspeakable: The Art of Kara Walker by Gwendolen DuBois Shaw’s was the use of the word ‘African American’. I’ve always accepted the use of the term African American, but I guess I never really questioned its origin. The penny dropped when I was reading the words through my ‘critical glasses’. I never realized that African Americans are named like this because their ancestors were shipped from Africa to America, where they became not really natives, because they were considered to have no free will.

Why has it taken me 21 years and a bit to realize this?

I believe I just accepted the term for what it was, never questioning its origin or meaning. This was probably done out of comfort, because racism is not a subject that I’ve ever been comfortable with. I believe the brain protects itself through -very- mild dissociation; to distance itself from the subject to keep the mind from experiencing something bad. This is normally experienced when you space out while reading a book or watching a movie, but who says that this phenomenon isn’t possible during a split-second; when we read a single word?


Humiliation

Humiliation.

It’s such a familiar term. Almost every day it bothers me. It appears in my conversations, in the train, at school, during dinner and sometimes it just pops up behind me in the mirror. It’s like a looming darkness that engulfs my physical being. I become frozen in place, because any mishap could evoke that horrible beast. But the beast keeps circling, awaiting its prey. Staying frozen for too long also evokes the beast. No path is safe. How will we thread?

I once read a text about how humiliation is an essential key to our survival. In different times, Eskimo’s would humiliate those who fell into the freezing water, to prevent it from ever happening again. This saved many lives, because when you fell into the dark water without a crowd, you could drown. This was the logical use of humiliation. It had purpose.

I believe humiliation has served its time. It’s a horrible beast which swallows you whole and which shouldn’t be allowed to be loose. There’s no deadly cold water in my home town, but it feels like there is when I tread outside the safety of my bed. Because you never know when the beast will find you.


Ego vs Superego in the context of abjection

The ego is driven by the superego and it’s a reality check for our id’s desire. The ego works with delayed gratification; it ensures that our desires are met, but only during a time which is socially appropriate. The ego acts as our control mechanism for our initial desires. Kendra Cherry, an educational consultant in psychology, uses this metaphor of Freud to explain the relation between our desire and our ego: “Freud compared the id to a horse and the ego to the horse's rider. The horse provides the power and motion, yet the rider provides the direction and guidance. […] The rider instead gives the horse directions and commands to guide it in the direction he or she wishes to go.”1The ego itself is guided by our superego. The superego is defined by society and the culture we live in. It’s our sense of right and wrong in our place in society and thus is the motor behind our ego. The abject continuously challenges the values of our superego. As Julia Kristeva wrote in her essay ‘Power of horror’: “[…] from it’s place of banishment, the abject does not cease challenging its master.” 2The master in this case, is the superego. Radicals in the system, such as traitors, liars, criminals, shameless rapists and the ‘savior’ killer, all lost the fight between their superego and the abject.3

1Cherry, K. (2019, March 14). Freud and the Id, Ego, and Superego. Retrieved March 28, 2019, from https://www.verywellmind.com/the-id-ego-and-superego-2795951
2Kristeva, J. (1982). Powers of horror: An essay on abjection (L. S. Roudiez, Trans.). New York, NY: Columbia Univesity Press.
3Kristeva, J. (1982). Powers of horror: An essay on abjection (L. S. Roudiez, Trans.). New York, NY: Columbia Univesity Press.


Universal literacy

Can literacy be defined as universal?
Sadia Khalid -who works at the International Islamic University Islamabad- shared 5 definitions of literacy in Pakistan between 1950 and 1990. In 1951: “One who can read a clear print in any language”, in 1961: “One who is able to read with understanding a simple letter in any language”, in 1972: “One who is able to read and write in some language with understanding.”, in 1981: “One who can read newspaper and write a simple letter.” And in 1984 it was changed once more to “One who is able to read and write a simple statement in the national or any of the regional language and count and write number and do simple calculation.”1Throughout this period, Pakistani economy grew at a fairly impressive rate of 6 percent per year.2Which also implies that the development of technologies and knowledge grew as well. It shows that the growth of the literacy criteria grows in correspondence with the development of the country. Even though this example is specific for Pakistan, it shows that the definition of literacy may be dependent on the development of the country. As literacy may be dependent on the state of development of the country in question, it can never be defined as universal. Merely universal in the sense that it could be universal for the Western world. Is it then justified to say that the Western standard of literacy is universal?

1Khalid, S. (2013, December 21). Universal Literacy. Retrieved February 12, 2019, from https://www.slideshare.net/sadibajwa/universal-literacy
2Umair, M. (2014). Economic Profile of Pakistan 1947-2014. Retrieved February 12, 2019, from http://www.academia.edu/6253583/Economic_Profile_of_Pakistan_1947-2014


Primal repression

Stereotype of primal repression has been created during the 90’s in America. A collection of artworks featuring bodily fluids, nudity and extreme representations of the marginalized. I wonder whether these stereotypes are based on primal repression. What’s primal repression and what do we repress?
Primal repression is defined by some as repressing -giving counterforce to- the ‘original’. The original in this case is translated to the initial desire of someone in a certain moment. The counterforce is evoked when the initial desire is deemed socially inappropriate. Thus, the criteria for the evoking of the counterforce isn’t static, as every culture has its own social acceptances and disapprovals. Primal instincts are thus quite divers and should be depicted as they are; a moving body of disapprovals which grow, shrink, turn and twist with geographical movement and movement through time.
Primal desires seem rigidly defined in the article written by Joseph Henry: The Suffering Body of 1993: Whatever Happened to the “Abject”. It’s defined as a representation of the socially marginalized, thus as objects which disgusts the general public. Things like shit, bodily fluids, nudity and actions which are deemed abject. However, if we consider primal desires as a body of continuously moving aspects, we cannot draw this conclusion.1

1"Primal Repression." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. . Retrieved April 07, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/primal-repression


What’s human?

I don’t consider myself a racist. I don’t discriminate on purpose, and I try to be aware of cultural difference to avoid saying something rude. However, when I walked through the busy streets of Seoul, I realized that no matter how conscious you try to be about discrimination, you will always unconsciously discriminate. As I strolled past shop fronts, I watched all the different people walking down the street. I saw them, I realized they were made of the same kind of bones and flesh as me, but they still felt somehow different from me. Not in a bad way, but just distant.
“It seems that a man who is nothing but a man has lost the very qualities which make it possible for other people to treat him as a fellow man.” Writes Susie Linfield in het article ‘Photojournalism and Human Rights’. I believe, that through this theory, we discriminate because we find that cultures have different qualities which define man as human. If we find someone less ‘human’ because he and/or she has less human qualities according to us, we treat them – unconsciously - different that those with more human qualities. So, what’s human?

Will racism ever be ‘Gone’?

Image not available

“At first glance you cannot quite believe what you are seeing.” Writes Kathryn Hughes in an article of The Telegraph, “Life-sized silhouettes made of black paper have been pasted directly on to the gallery walls.”1 This particular style is defined by Kara E. Walker, an African American artist who ...became well-known by her famous black-paper cut-out translation of the historical romance ‘Gone with the wind’; Gone: An Historical Romance of a Civil War as It Occurred b'tween the Dusky Thighs of One Young Negress and Her Heart.2 This artwork has aroused many outrageous statements from art critics, and in this paper I will try to form an opinion about this artwork myself.
Primarily, I would like to state that according to the theory of Sigmund Freud and Edmund Burke, ‘Gone’ has the necessary elements to evoke a sublime experience. Walker speaks about the artwork herself in an interview: “The silhouette lends itself to avoidance of the subject—of not being able to look at it directly—yet there it is, all the time, staring you in the face.”3 Walker tries to explain the uncanny feeling which is evoked by her use of silhouettes, which can be seen in figure 1.01. Freud’s work explains that the constant “[...] feeling of unsettling ambivalence” provokes a sublime experience. 4 Furthermore, according to Burke’s theory, the explicit sexual visuals in Walker’s work strengthen the sublime experience. You realise “[...]with a kind of mounting horror”1 that the cut-outs depict a deeply racist variation of the old South. The images are a mix “between beauty and horror”4 and “evoke[...] a shudder of perverse pleasure”4, which -according to Burke- is a sublime experience.
Secondarily, I would like to state that this artwork uses an invented tradition by means of silhouettes. “To this very day the black profile cutouts are called silhouettes. Thankfully, the negative connotation no longer remains.” Says Tim Arnold on his website dedicated to Silhouetting. Apparently, the technique is named after the French Minister of 5 Finance -Etienne de Silhouette, who -in time of crisis- cared more about his black-paper cut-outs than about the starving people. In protest, the peasants dressed in black and shouted: “We are Silhouettes!” They stated that, according to De Silhouette they were too poor to wear colour.5 When artists migrated to America, silhouetting gained a different association; politicians and wealthy families hired silhouettists to create portraits. This way it lost it’s bad connotation and became a prestigious trade.5 This change of connotation implies that silhouetting is an invented tradition, which changes to the inquiries of the society. 6 To continue on this topic, I would like to state that the silhouettes emphasize the contrast between the traditions of the “Black”- and “White” Americans3, as symbols are used that are perceived as typically African or typically Western. For example, the Victorian-style dress clearly implies that the woman is a “White” American, while the fuzzy knots imply that the other women are “Black”.
Tertiary, I would like to inquire that this artwork implies that the Western world has an unrealistic perception of the African American culture. “At one point, Scarlett’s[...] overcome by a “niggery” scent.” Walker says in an interview, “[...] What does that mean? And why is there an assumption that I should know what that means?” This is an example of a characteristic which has been bound to “Black” Americans by the “White”, as there’s no definition of a “Niggery scent”. In this way, the African American culture has been altered by the Western world, the same as the Orient after the publishment of 1001 nights, which ignited a distinction between the West and the East.8 Quaternary, I would like to state that Walker strives to address racism and implies that racism is still present in America and shouldn’t be ignored. “The history of America is built on this inequality.[...]And we buy into it.” States Walker.7 I believe -based on this statement, that Walker wants to stress that racism has not gone extinct as some might think, because America is build on social- and racial inequality. As long as this ongoing inequality is not discussed, racism will never fade.
To conclude, I would like to draw my own opinion from the analysis above. I believe that ‘Gone’ by Kara E. Walker stresses the racial inequality in America by use of it’s historical literature. Walker visualises this by altering the play and creating a push- and pull effect between the alluring side of ‘Gone with the wind’ and explicit sexual images. This evokes a sublime experiences which leaves a grand impression on the spectator. The technique which is used strengthens this sublime experience and stresses ongoing racism. This emphasizes the (invented) traditions and the authority of the Western culture. Overall, it’s a controversial artwork.

1Hughes, K. (2013, October 09). Southern discomfort: artist Kara Walker continues to shock and awe. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/10314794/Southern-discomfort-artist-Kara-Walker-continues-to-shock-and-awe.htm
2 Walker, K. (n.d.). Kara Walker. Gone: An Historical Romance of a Civil War as It Occurred b'tween the Dusky Thighs of One Young Negress and Her Heart. 1994 | MoMA. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from https://www.moma.org/collection/works/110565
3The Melodrama of “Gone with the Wind”. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from https://art21.org/read/kara-walker-the-melodrama-of-gone-with-the-wind
4Morley, S. (Ed.). (2010). Introduction.
5 Arnold, T. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://www.silhouette-man.com/History.html
6 Hobsbawm, E. J., & Ranger, T. O. (Eds.). (1983). The invention of tradition.
7 The Melodrama of “Gone with the Wind”. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from https://art21.org/read/kara-walker-the-melodrama-of-gone-with-the-wind
8 Said, E. W. (1978). Orientalism, western conceptions of the Orient. Pantheon Books.
Figure 1.01: Retrieved from:https://www.moma.org/collection/works/110565